Cheap Windows 7 Upgrade Options in 2010

General News

Recently, I was asked where the best place to find a good deal on Microsoft's Windows 7 operating system would be. Having used the RC, I knew I would be upgrading so I preordered up a couple of the $50 Home Premium copies that lasted for only two weeks back in June/July 2009 (in hindsight, I wish I would have picked up a few more copies for friends & family). Since then I haven't needed to purchase individual licenses and this put me into the position of not really knowing what deals exist right now for the average person other than the assumption there were non-profit, educational, OEM, MSDN member, etc. pricing. I also knew the family pack deal was dead.

[Update 2010-09-02: The family pack is making a comeback as of October 22, 2010; no word on how long the promotion will last yet]


In the end, we saw that there are still a few inexpensive (and legal) upgrade options found in the top search results and also through our own research. Note that I am excluding the Windows Anytime Upgrades since those are for adding features to an already purchased copy of Windows 7 and also OEM pricing since that's for system builders only. Read further for our findings.

University Students

First of all, if you are currently enrolled as a student in a college or university with at least half a credit, go right now to the Microsoft Student page for Windows 7 and qualify yourself for a hugely discounted price ($30 for Win 7 Home Premium Upgrade or $65 for Professional). You'll also find good prices on other applications such as Microsoft Office (Office Ultimate is $60). The promotion is called by Microsoft "The Ultimate Steal" and is good through December 31, 2010.

Edit: It looks like Home Premium may no longer be available, just Professional

Shopping Around

Just by shopping around on the Web (,,,,, etc.), sometimes you can find nice deals. Unfortunately, with Windows 7, pricing is fairly consistent across resellers, though it looks like buying directly from Microsoft is not a good option due to them charging full retail price just for the downloadable version and then charging you another $15 for the physical CD! From our searching, the best upgrade price found for Windows 7 Home Premium was at and for $102.54, but Amazon wins out by $3 for including free shipping. For Windows 7 Ultimate it's the same two contenders at a price of $193.54. For Windows 7 Professional, Amazon wins at $172.00 with Wal-mart close behind at $174.54 plus shipping. So, if you're looking to trim $20+ bucks off your purchase price, it's worth looking around.

Parents, Students, School Teachers\Faculty\Staff, & Non-Profit Organizations (NPO)

If you are a parent of a child that attends a K12 school, college level university or even if you home school your children, you can often get a really reduced price on software for your home computer, assuming your child will be using the family computer for school work. Teachers, faculty and staff of an educational or non-profit organization may also qualify for discounts.

A good example of this would be the Academic Superstore. If you check out their Windows 7 page, you will see some very good upgrade prices for the downloadable versions of Windows 7 Professional ($79.98) and Ultimate ($99.98) versions, as long as you can provide a valid eligibility document. The discounted physical (i.e., non-download version) product pricing requires you to be associated with a qualifying school.

Final Words

Since deals and promotions come and go, finding the best one can be hard at times and the winners tend to change by the minute. Even so, the prices we found look to be fairly solid for the time being and are a good starting point for your own quest for Windows 7 on the cheap or if you need to point a friend or family member in the right direction. If you come across any other really good deals or alternatives, post them in the comments or shoot us a note!


Tag: microsoft microsoft windows windows 7 microsoft office deals

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Running head: Assignment 2


Table of Contents
Question 1 3
Question 2 3
Question 3 4
Question 4 5
Question 5 5
Question 6 6
Question 7 6
Question 8 7
Question 9 7
Question 10 8
Question 11 8
Question 12 8
Question 13 8
Bibliography 10

Question 1
a. A gram-positive bacterium consisted of low G+C ratio in which their DNA includes few G and C base rather than A-T bases. G+C ratio contains the 55% Geobacillus thermocatenulatu. In terms of producing endospores, the gram-positive bacterium able reproducing by the binary fission method.
b. The γ-proteobacterium that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract known as Escherichia. It profoundly inhibits the warm-blooded lives' gastrointestinal tract. There are few strains that produce vitamin K. and the rest of the serotype is E. coli and pathogens like O157: H7.
c. Mycobacterium tuberculosis takes into account as Actinobacteria that causes lungs' diseases. Containing the high G+C gram-positive, its cell wall helps to impervious the mycolic acids to polar molecules. M. tuberculosis causes the disease known as granulomatous in which the lungs get infected.
d. Crown Gall Disease is caused by α-proteobacterium known as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Crown Gall manifests similarly to a tumour to which it grows usually. While transferring the genes into plants the identified α-proteobacterium utilizes plasmid for transferring the DNA to the host plants.
e. Bordetella pertussis-β-proteobacterium causes Whooping cough. Bordetella manually gets placed between Gram-negative Cocci and Aerobic Rods.
Question 2

Photographic Atlas

Gram-negative bacilli The specific Gram-negative bacilli will be increasingly resistant to the identified antibiotic drugs. As per the photographic Atlas, it can be said that,
Some related strains could be resistant to maximum avail treatments that result to prevent illness as well as death from infected bacterias. Also, it contributes to the costs of escalated healthcare.

Gram-positive cocci According to the photographic Atlas, it is seen that Gram-positive cocci have retained the crystal violet colour in the Gram stain. The rationale behind choosing this method is to distinguish several kinds of bacteria.

Question 3
The fingerprint showing the detection of opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium can affect the patient. It infects the cystic fibrosis. The studies have revealed that the utilization of several single biomarkers in breathing may confound single biomarkers’ reliability. The staff wearing hand gloves and nose cover is not affected by the infection. They also do not cause infection to the patient with a respiratory infection. All patients have different kinds of bacteria strain. The strain of bacteria differs on fingerprint as there are different members of strains.

All staff is responsible for respiratory infection as they are the one who mobilizes bacteria. They serve different patients and the bacteria affect his mobility. Their body is resistant and the immune power of their body does not allow the bacteria to infect them. Proper sanitation and constant changing of gloves can prevent the mobilization of bacteria and the effect can be mitigated in that way.
Question 4
a. Serotyping will be identified by two species- Samonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Over the 2500 different types of serotypes, the Salmonella would consider the hardy and ubiquitous bacteria in which the source of the infection would be identified.
b. According to the DNA composition, 16s rRNA represents all the bacteria including all the cells. For example, relatedness between organisms could be assessed followed by the sequence of 16s rRNA. Besides, the specific genes will encode the component of RNA in accordance with the sedimentation rate.
Question 5
a. Genus Rickettsia is considered as the bacteria that obligated the intracellular parasites. The name of the disease is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It gets transmitted by infectious fluids and bites.
b. The consequences of Burkholderia species are taken into account as often fluids that generally use in hospitals. Burkholderia affects human as a bioterrorism agent in which melioidosis caused.
c. Two examples- Vibrio cholera, Salmonella
States-United States
d. Desulfovibrio contributes to the black colour concerning reduced sulfate that is considered as general across the anaerobic environments where the degradation of organic materials gets aided.
e. genera of ε-proteobacteria- Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria
Question 6
a. The purple sulphur bacteria takes into account as a method of photosynthesis that frequently found in stagnant water. The process could be compared with the produced oxidized granule of the elemental sulfur.
b. Its appearance on Gram stain contributed to it to be a common food pathogen. Staphylococcus is the genus of Gram-positive bacteria of family Staphylococcaceae in the Bacillales.
c. Morphology- Bacillus species has consisted of long chains of glucose that are linked together through amino acids.
Characteristics- exhibiting a broader range of physiologic abilities that allow them to live in every natural environment.
d. The motility of all of the spirochetes is caused due to the rotated of the flagella within the periplasmic spaces.
e. Domain Archaea from other bacteria distinct the molecular characteristics that get separated from the bother bacteria
Question 7
Column A Column B
sac containing asexual spores g. ascospore
ability to become pathogenic h. opportunistic
vegetative fungal structure c. mutualistic
result of mating two different strains j. conidium
asexual spore e. sporangium
reproductive process used by yeasts i. budding
partnered growth between fungi and algae a. zygospore
enclosed by a thick wall d. septum
fungal infection f. mycosis
hyphal cross-wall b. hypha

Question 8
a. The certain fungi sustain the natural world. For example Molds, mushrooms and yeasts fungi play a significant role as decomposers in the soil food web. The mentioned examples convert the organic factors that are entirely hard digesting the forms of the others used organisms.
b. Lichen is considered a composite organism in which the cyanobacteria get emerged from algae among the hyphae). It maintains a mutual benefit symbiotic relationship with fungi. For example- ak moss (Evernia prunastri), genus Parmelia, genus Roccella.

Question 9
Mycosis is a fungal infection of human and animals. Besides, Mycoses are general and several environmental and physiological conditions in which it is contributed to the development of the fungal diseases.
Mycosis is caused by the fungal overgrowth. It is worth to mention that the major infection of mycosis is Candida. Fungi naturally present on human skin and the membrane of mucous. Thus the mentioned infection will be caused by transmitting through unprotected oral, intercourse and vagina.
Question 10
The opportunistic pathogen has constricted as an infection which mainly caused by the pathogens. The pathogens are viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. The pathogens have taken the advantages of not being normally available. It had identified as the host to weaken the immune system. For example- AIDS.
Question 11
The rapid growth of the cyanobacteria in water, as well as microscopic algae, is the algal bloom. It had recognized through the discolouration in the water. The term algae had included various aquatic photosynthetic-organisms. The photosynthetic organism is multicellular and macroscopic. It had mainly derived to the effective growth of the unicellular algae, microscopic but not the macroscopic algae.
Question 12
The life cycle of the Plasmodium sp involves the devolution of the blood-feeding. The blood-feeding inspected the hot which had injected parasites in the vertebrate host in the blood meal. Parasites are mainly growing on the vertebrate tissue in the body. It m occurs before entering the main bloodstream. Thus it infects the red blood cells.
Question 13
Vector had considered as the organism. It does not cause the disease. However, it has identified as the organism which spread the infection. Hence it spread the infection by conveying the pathogens. Hence it conveys the pathogens from one host to another host. For example- malaria is the vector-borne disease. The genus Anopheles is the vector, responsible for transmission.
Leboffe, M. J., & Pierce, B. E. (2012). A photographic atlas for the microbiology laboratory. Morton Publishing Company.
Tortora, G. J., Funke, B. R., Case, C. L., & Johnson, T. R. (2004). Microbiology: an introduction (Vol. 9). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.